Spatial-Temporal Distribution of the Palinurid and Scyllarid Phyllosoma Larvae in Oman Coastal Waters
Sergey Khvorov1*, Sergey Piontkovski2, and Elena Popova3
1Marine Science Fisheries Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Wealth
P.O. Box 227, Sultanate of Oman
2College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University
P.O. Box 34, Al-Khod 123, Sultanate of Oman
3Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, 2, Nakhimov av.-Crimea
99011, Sevastopol, Ukraine
The Bongo Net samples collected between 2005 and 2008 in the Sea of Oman and in the north-western part of the Arabian Sea (near Massirah Island) were analyzed, for a pilot assessment of seasonal and spatial distribution of the phyllosoma larvae. In the samples collected, 84% of all phyllosoma larvae were from the family Palinuridae, while the others were contributed by family Scyllaridae. All larvae of Panulirus homarus were in the first development stage and had a mean body length of 1.30±0.89mm. The phyllosoma larvae of the less abundant family Scyllaridae were in the second, third, and fourth development stages, which had a mean length of 2.3mm, 3.3mm and 4.63mm, respectively. In terms of seasonal changes, the phyllosoma larvae tend to appear in Omani waters in February, reaching their maximum numbers in April. The abundance of phyllosoma P. homarus was as much as twofold higher in the Arabian Sea compared to the Sea of Oman.
The Relationship between Algal Blooms, Fish Kill Incidents, and Oxygen Depletions along the Omani Coast
S.A. Piontkovski1), H.M.H. Al-Gheilani2), B. Jupp3), Y.V.B. Sarma1), and A.R. Al-Azri1)
1) Sultan Qaboos University, CAMS,PO Box 34, Al-Khod 123, Sultanate of Oman
2) Marine Science and Fisheries Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, P.O. Box 467, Muscat 113, Sultanate of Oman
3) GEO-Resources Consultancy, P.O. Box 175, Mina Al Fahal, Muscat 116 Sultanate of Oman
A persistence of hypoxia is a common feature for the Sea of Oman, and the western Arabian Sea. By using historical data complemented by ongoing measurements, the relationship between the frequency of harmful algal blooms, fish kill incidents, and oxygen depletions, was investigated. In the Sea of Oman, the seasonal pattern exhibited a tendency of fish kill incidents to
increase, from January to November. In the western Arabian Sea, the pattern was different- maximal occurrence of fish kill incidences was observed in December and January. In 1988-2011, the number of harmful algal blooms accompanied by fish kills was 4 times higher for the Sea of Oman (N= 91) compared to the Arabian Sea coast (N= 22), whereas the total number of fish kill incidents was about the same (22 versus 25). This means that the Arabian Sea coast faced more frequent harmful blooms than the Sea of Oman. The Sea of Oman coastal time series of the dissolved oxygen concentration implied a
steady decline throughout the year, from January to December. The fish kill incidents in this region were mainly driven by oxygen depletions, whereas in the Arabian Sea these incidents were mediated by the harmful algal blooms along with the oxygen depletions. In analyzing the Omani coast as a whole, the Ridge Multiple Regression Analysis implied the dissolved oxygen concentration and monthly occurrence of algal blooms as the two variables explaining 75% of the seasonal variations in fish kill incidents.
Keywords: Hypoxia; Fish kills; Arabian Sea; Harmful algal blooms
Interannual Changes in the Sea of Oman Ecosystem
Sergey A. Piontkovski*,1, Hamed M.H. Al-Gheilani2, Barry P. Jupp3, Adnan R. Al-Azri1 and Khalid A. Al-Hashmi1
1Department of Marine Science and Fisheries, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 34, Al-Khod 123, Sultanate of Oman
2Marine Science and Fisheries Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, P.O. Box 467, Muscat 113, Sultanate of Oman
3GEO-Resources Consultants, P.O. Box 175, Mina Al Fahal, Muscat 116, Sultanate of Oman
Historical data were used to estimate interannual tendencies for the Sea of Oman over the past 50 years. Declining trends were shown for the atmospheric surface level pressure in the region affected by the Siberian High atmospheric anomaly, the zonal component of wind speed, concentration of nitrates, biomass of diatoms and sardine landings. Changes in Zooplankton biomass showed no clear trend. These trends were associated with and accompanied by rising atmospheric temperature, sea surface temperature, annual variability of the kinetic energy of mesoscale eddies, frequency of fish kills (along with the death of other animals- dolphins, turtles, and sea birds) and harmful algal bloom incidents. In terms of interannual coupling between physical and biological processes, the evaluated trends imply that the weakening of the Siberian High atmospheric anomaly results in the decline of the zonal wind speed and a regional increase of air temperature. This in turn increases the temperature in the mixed layer which strengthens thermo-haline stratification of the water column. Increasing stratification prevents the penetration of nutrients into the mixed layer and does not favor the interannual increase of biological productivity, although annual variation of biological productivity has increased, from 1997 to 2008.
Keywords: Gulf of Oman, long term changes oceanography, chlorophyll a, climate change.